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Facade Construction works by Nigerian Professionals

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A façade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face" of a building, especially the principal front that looks onto a street or open space.

The facade pattern (also spelled façade) is a software design pattern commonly used with object-oriented programming.

The name is by analogy to an architectural façade. A facade is an object that provides a simplified interface to a larger body of code, such as a class library.

Nigerian building Professional has advanced for the past few years in Construction works. If you need Expertise on facade Construction, call them today via our website.

External Wall tiles build by Nigerian

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A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone.

Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to rectangular tiles.

Tiles made from clay that has been permanently hardened by heat, often having a decorative glaze.

See Julius Berger Technology but Nigerian construction it.

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This is the handwork of Nigerian Construction team in Julius Berger PLC. God bless NIGERIA!!

Yes! Nigeria building team

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Build your house to your taste

Look at steel roof Construction by Julius Berger PLC

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Technology is advancing in develop world but Nigeria is worshipping certificate.

Nigeria government anti-graft agency building under construction

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One of the most expensive building for one of Nigeria Agency

Construction: Experience painting works

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Look at the interior painting for an office at EFCC project in progress.

Construction: One of the EFCC building construction in progress

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For affordable MAINTENANCE WORKS, get contact from this site

Construction: latest duplex building construction

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If you need building team, from Julius Berger PLC, contact us via this website

Vanguard: Company devises means of ending property fraud in Nigeria

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A real estate company, Next Gear Resources Ltd  has unveiled services it provides that help innocent and unsuspecting Nigerians evade being duped of their hard-earned money by fraudsters who pose as real estate agents.
Those interested in buying plots of land or developing property in any parts of the country no longer need to worry about being conned or getting a shoddy job as a reliable real estate firm, Next Gear Resources Ltd has come up with a service that eliminates these concerns and puts a stop to property fraud in Nigeria.
The company, which procures land for clients in places that are fast-growing, affordable and are not more than 30 minutes drive to the city centre, takes care of the property of its clients and interested customers through a platform it calls WatchMyProperty.
According to Next Gear Resources chief executive, Mr. Sola Owomoyela, this unique service came into existence because of the yearning and pains of a lot of people that wants to own houses and lands but were duped or treated unfairly by industry operators.
He added that the platform helps investors to buy lands; supervise their projects or professionally help them develop such properties through Next Gear Resources’ architects, engineers, masons and other technicians who are top-notch.
The company also helps clients do due diligence on properties they want to buy and even help in forecasting same to ensure maximum profit for its customers. “We watch over property anywhere in Nigeria. If you log on to our website:  you’ll get more information. The service is for a token and for those who are buying from us be rest assured that these services are free from us.
But if you are buying from other people or you have bought already there is a fee. The fee depends on the kind of services we are going to offer to the client,” Owomoyela said.
“People who invest or desire to invest in real estate in Nigeria should not be scared. Be rest assured that whatever property you want to purchase or project you want to develop, we can be your third eye and fight for your interest until the end.
We do project support services, we have caterpillars, we have architects, engineers we have masons that work with us. Those who work with us are top of the notch.  If you want a project that is of standard and has high quality we are the ones to go to,” he added.
The real estate company, located at Suite 12 New Point Plaza, 2nd Avenue, Gwarimpa, Abuja, has come up with a three-purpose house innovation, by which it develops properties for clients that can serve as an office, a living area and a bedroom. Owomoyela insists that with Next Gear Resources, everyone including low-income earners can own a home in Abuja.
“Some people were paying N1,000 per day. A hair dresser, a mechanic or artisans can at least save up N1000 per day. For instance, if your land is 300,000 or 250,000 you can pay within a year by paying N1000 daily. So this makes it easy for everyone to own a property. “People wire money into our account.
You may not have to come to us, we can come to your office to collect these monies, through appointed agents that work directly under us. They will issue you a receipt for every deposit. This is just like a contribution system and at the end of the year, you own a property.
“It is possible for you to buy a land from us and let it be for about 3, 4 or 8 years. It depends on how you settle with us and we are going to help you watch over it with nobody encroaching on your land. You have your papers, we keep your land. That is why we are into land banking. So you can buy for your children unborn.
“All our lands are guaranteed before we purchase a land we do our due diligence, we conduct research on the land, we conduct research on the area, we also conduct research on government policies about these areas. Most of us have legal backgrounds so we understand,” the lawyer said.
On properties that are presently up for sale, the company, with over 10 years experience in real estate, said; “We have land banking: We have Palmspring Estate & Bramton Estate in Guruku which is about 15 minutes drive from Maitama extension, We have Riverdale county I and Riverdale county II which is also 15 minutes drive  from Maitama extension Abuja.
“We have the Refuge residences which is sandwiched between the Diplomatic drive (Katampe extension) and News Engineering. It’s a beautiful place that is on a hill. If you are thinking of Beverly Hill think of Refuge Residences because there is a gulf course, resort, it’s a place for hiking, for naturals. It overlooks Gwarimpa and the whole of Abuja. “Then there is the Bhalof Estate in Pyakasa, the other side of Lugbe.
It is a beautiful lush place. It is a very flat land.We have Hillview estate in Karshi which is 15min drive from Apo. It is surrounded by Ave Maria University, Navy, Army and Police estates are also there. We also have an estate in Lagos state located at the Lagos free trade zone, it has a beautiful scenery.”


Relationship Between Building Design and Building Maintenance in Nigeria

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Building efficiency can be affected by decision taken and actions performed at any time in the history of a building from its initial stage to its final stage.
The designer should be involved in all these decisions because the design influence on the maintenance of all building is greater than ever before. Today, buildings are designed to meet more complicated needs than those of previous times do. Designer should know the building owner's requirements such as amount of space that he needs, the amount of money he can afforded to spend and the length of life he requires for his building.
At this time in the preparation of the design, brief decisions can be taken which will have a vital effect on the amount of maintenance the completed building will need.
The lowest initial cost in not necessary the most economical at the end, for cheaper materials often require more frequent maintenance and may have a shorter working life than the more expensive.
Physical decay and deterioration of buildings due to weathering and even normal use, which are resulting in the need for an abnormal amount of repair and renewal, can be avoided by the exercise of greater care in detailed design at critical points of the structure and a better understanding of the nature and behavior of materials.
The important factors, which contribute to the deterioration of a building, are:

1) Moisture.
2) Natural weathering.
4) Corrosion and chemical action.
5) Structural and thermal movement.
6) User wear and tear.

Therefore, at the design stage of a project, the building must be visualized in use, and materials and finishes chosen, capable of withstanding everyday wear and tear.
The designer must choose materials and building that meets his client's functional needs and meets the budget constraints laid down and can be maintained in good working order for a reasonable time at a reasonable cost. Maintenance planning should be started at the design stage and continue throughout the life of that building.

See how to control maintenance cost in Nigeria

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Upper management always concerns with the total amount of money to be spent over a period of time rather than with the detailed cost of individual items. The maintenance cost controller is always under various pressures and his decision on authorize a certain level of expenditure on maintenance will be affected by the strength of the demand for other quarters and their interest in and knowledge of maintenance. Upper level management often views maintenance costs as an uncontrollable cost. Contrary to this view, maintenance costs are highly controllable when an accurate strategy for estimating maintenance cost is established. The maintenance cost estimation accuracy depends upon the amount of information available on the nature and extent of the work, condition under which will be executed, the mode of execution, and the costs of employing labors and prices of materials.

The strategy of estimating can be either long-term or medium and short-term estimate. The long-term estimate may extend over a number of years and required for a verity of purposes. Also, it must be based on the average cost of maintenance related to some parameter of the buildings. Methods of long-term estimating include the following:

Financial Criteria

In this method, maintenance costs can be expressed as a percentage of (Lee, 1987):

Construction cost: maintenance costs as a percentage of construction costs will vary based on the building age, type of the construction and the amount of increment in the maintenance and construction cost.

Production cost: the greater use of mechanization in the maintenance work in attempting to reduce the production cost may cause the maintenance costs to be raised.

Occupation cost: the reduction in the occupation costs may increase the maintenance costs. For example, the improvement in the thermal efficiency of the building will reduce the energy consumption cost and may increase the cost of maintaining and monitoring the system to ensure its effectiveness.

Profitability: buildings maintenance policies have long-term effects on the condition of buildings and indirectly determine the profit.

Costs per Unit of Accommodation

It measures the maintenance cost per the number of people that occupied the building. This method doesn’t obtain the accurate level of expenditure on the maintenance work. However, it can be used for a rough forecast of the maintenance cost for buildings of the same use categories

Cost per Unit of Volume

To use this method, some other factors (i.e. number of buildings) should be considered at the time of assessment the maintenance costs

Costs per Building Elements

The assessment of maintenance cost based on building elements will provide a rational amount to be spent on maintenance of each element. The total costs are either to be related to the total floor area or the area of that particular element.

Costs per Functional System

The level of maintenance expenditure is related to the need of the end users.

Nigeria ineffective maintenance cost

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Nigerian has wonderful knowledge of construction and infrastructural development but the question is, how effective is the maintenance cost of those infrastructure? Below are the factors affecting maintenance cost in Nigeria.

There are many sources of ineffective maintenance cost. These sources include:

Unnecessary Work: It includes the following.

Work above the required standards.

Improper maintenance work.
Misuse of the building.

Design defects and faulty workmanship in the initial construction stage.

Uneconomic Work: This is resulting form:

Non-productive time caused by excessive traveling from job to job, waiting for instruction and materials
Improper work methods.

Lack of motivation on the part of the operatives.

Lack of appropriate maintenance contracts.

Changes to the nature and scope of the work after commencement.

Lack of an efficient system of recording and controlling costs.

Inadequate Work: This is also resulting from:

Failure to identify the true causes of defects and specifies the correct remedial work.

Improper execution of the work.
Lack of adequate rules in the correct documents to ensure that the work will be performed in accordance with specification.

Nigeria Building Maintenance Overview

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Maintenance assists retaining economic life of buildings. Moreover, it is a productive activity both at the private and the national levels. At the private level, proper maintenance leads to lower depreciation costs (due to longer economic life) and consequently leads to higher profitability. While at the national level, proper maintenance leads to lower expenditures on replacement. Thus, allowing more expenditure on expansion into new productive investment (Ikhwan, 1996).

The Committee on Building Maintenance in British defined maintenance as: “Building Maintenance is the work undertaken in order to keep, restore or improve every facility, i.e. every part of a building, its services and surrounds to a currently acceptable standard, and to sustain the utility and value of the building”(Mills, 1980). 

In addition, maintenance is defined in the British Standards (BS 3811:1974) as “A combination of any action carried out to retain an item in, or restore it to an acceptable condition” (Mills, 1980).

A more functional definition is that “Maintenance is synonymous with controlling the condition of a building so that its pattern lies within specified regions”. (Shear, 1983)

Moreover, building maintenance cost can be defined as the cost of any actions carried out to retain an item in, or restore it to an acceptable condition but excluding any improvements other than those necessitated by inability to replace obsolete materials or components (Seeley, 1976).

The objectives of building maintenance are therefore (Alner and Fellows, 1990):

(1) To ensure that buildings and their associated services are in a safe condition.

(2) To ensure that the buildings are fit for use.

(3) To ensure that the condition of the building meets all statutory requirements.

(4) To carry out the maintenance work necessary to maintain the value of the physical assets of the building stock.

(5) To carry out the work necessary to maintain the quality of the building.

Maintenance can be done in different stages. Each stage will have different characteristics. Liska defined those stages as follows:

Planning and Design Stage: the planning and designing of the facility should be based on the identified function and be as maintenance free as possible. In this stage a lot of money can be saved with the proper plan and design. For this reason, the building manager and maintenance personnel should be consulted during the early stages of the building design.

Construction Stage: in order to achieve minimum level of maintenance during the building life, work performed during the construction phase must be done with the highest quality in term of workmanship. As a result, expert contractor should be selected to perform the project.

Maintenance Stage: in this stage, maintenance is performed after the building has been constructed and occupied.

Construction professional's decision incurring maintenance expenditure

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The factors, which influence decisions to incur maintenance expenditure include:
Satisfaction of user requirements: the basic requirements of the user can be defined as the following:

A stable shelter from the weather: new buildings are complex and the freedom of collapse remains an absolute requirement for all buildings.

Some movement can't be avoided and it is necessary to determine whether their amount and rate were indicative of imminent failure of a structural member.

Suitable internal environment conditions:

External envelope of any building can be considered as a filter which can be adjusted to allow varying amount of light and air into the building and prevent the undesirable feature such as noise and excessive heat.

However, artificial light and air should be used if the natural types are inadequate (Lee, 1987).

Value consideration: the value of any building to be maintained is determined by the need for it services. If there is no need for its services then there is non-value to maintain it.

Therefore, if the need exists, the question is how the condition of a building would affect its value? Determining the relationship between building condition and user activities would assist in answering the arising question.

Maintenance interacts with other costs and also revenues.

The optimum level of expenditure on maintenance work is that which gives the maximum return in value.

However, any additional increment, which is not necessary, in maintenance expenditure produces smaller increase in value.

Loss in building value (decrease in user efficiency) could be as a consequence of delaying maintenance and it is immediate in some cases and some may not occur until deterioration is far advance.

The total cost should be optimized as illustrated.

The direct costs represent the estimated expenditure on maintenance and the indirect costs represent the additional costs incurred through lack of maintenance.

Inefficient work will not alter the optimum standard but it will raise the total cost of achieving that standard.

Statutory constraints: it is limited for the most part in the buildings, which affect health and safety.

The main building regulations which are important to the maintenance manger may be classified as:

Those which apply to the design and physical requirements of new construction.

Those, which are of a continuing nature and apply during the occupation of the building (Lee, 1987).

MOBILIZATION (Method Statement)

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1.1Site / Work Organisation
See attached documents:
Organisation chart (Quality Management Plan)
Programme of work

The contractor’s main offices and stores shall be located near the site entrance as most vehicles carrying materials to site must stop at the checker’s office, and it is convenient to have this near the agent’s offices and stores.
The site facilities shall consist of:
Office to accommodate the project manager, site manager, administration, wages, technical office, quantity surveyor, cost control, quality assurance and control, surveyors, plant and insurance, first aid clinic.
Store to accommodate cement, tiles, permanent materials, sundry materials, fuel, oil and lubricant bulk storage.
Concrete batching area
Steel bending / Carpentry and joinery workshop

Electricity shall be supplied by the provision of power generators and supported by PHCN. Power generators shall be housed and sited where the noise they create is blanked off from local residences.

Necessary equipment shall be delivered to site based on work demand. These shall include:
Concrete mixer
Poker Vibrator
Power Generator

Cement shall be purchased from local source and delivered by our local suppliers.
Fine aggregates shall be obtained from local sources and shall be clean, hard and chemically inert. The sand shall be checked for correct grading as this is very important when considering the strength of the concrete.
Coarse aggregates shall be clean, hard and chemically inert. They shall be free of an undue quantity of elongated or flaky particles, organic matter, coatings or excessive dust. For normal reinforced concrete the maximum size of aggregates will be 19mm which may also vary according to the thickness of the element being poured and the spacing of the reinforcement. This shall also be obtained from local sources.
Water used for mixing shall be fresh, clean and free from acids, alkali or other harmful substances which may pollute the supply.

1.6Materials Storage
Proper storage shall be provided for materials which are subject to pilfering, vandalism and deterioration from weather. Stores shall be laid out in such a way that checking and issue of materials can be carried out easily.
Materials such as steel reinforcement, concrete pipes shall be stored in the open while aggregates shall be stored near central mixing plant. Bagged cement shall be stacked in the order of first-in-first-out under sheds which have raised timber floor. The storage of liquids such as oil and petrol shall be subject to the petroleum regulations and the associated fire regulations.

…………………. Nigeria Limited understands that prevention is the best form of accident management. A good management scheme is to do everything to prevent accident from happening.
One prevention method common to all risks is the necessity to train personnel. All workers shall be apprised of the general and specific risks they are exposed to and what could be done to minimize such risks from time to time.

2.2Occupational Health
Occupational health is the sum total of all the activities and programmes that are engaged upon aiming to attain and maintain the highest level of health and safety for all people who are engaged in any type of work whatsoever.
To know the preventive measures to take, an idea of the possible types of accidents likely to occur is necessary, as well as the possible victims. A few of these are mentioned below.

2.3Noise and Noise Control
Noise shall be checked using any of the three measures stated below where applicable:
At the source when practicable this procedure is most desirable and the reduction of the radiation acoustic power  may be achieved by the introduction of mufflers, by  mounting the vibrating system on isolating mounts etc.
Control along the path of travel. This involves increasing the length of the sound path, re-orientating the sound source with respect to the receiving area; introduction of sound barriers between source and received, completely enclosure of the source etc.
Control at the receiving end. In this case the listener may be aurally protected by the use of ear- muffs and ear plugs.

The adverse health effects from sedimentary dust are negligible, as most of the dust does not reach the respiratory tract and if it does, the particles are retained in the nose or mouth .Only toxic, soluble compound may then enter the blood stream and result in health problems.

2.5Protective Measures in Electrical Installations
A major method of avoiding electric shock is to make sure people do not come in contact with live conductors. This shall be achieved by:
Providing conductors with effective insulation.
Placing conductors out of reach of people.
Protecting conductors with barriers and enclosures
Erecting obstacle (screen) to prevent people from getting close to conductors.

2.6First Aid for Accident Victims
First aid treatment shall be provided on site and all workers shall be trained on how to handle or rescue accident victims.

2.7Safety in the Machine Shop
The proper lay out of machine is an obvious starting point for ensuring safety in the machine shop. Adequate space between machines and between machines and walls shall be provided, taking account of the type of work to be handled.

2.8Cleanliness and Good Housekeeping
This is by far one of the most essential safety measures in work place. Good housekeeping eliminates physical risks and also contributes to safety with a psychological effect on workers. Good housekeeping means putting everything in its proper place.

2.9Protective Clothing and Accessories
The following are some of the requirements regarding working clothes:
Short sleeve shirts shall be worn in preference to long sleeve shirts
Well fitting clothes shall be worn – no loose flaps, strings or dangling belts.
Avoid carrying pointed or sharp objects in pockets.
Overalls shall be worn when required as a means of protection against hazards such as hot metal, acids, etc.
Avoid wearing a long finger nail, chains and rings.
Avoid using high heel shoes or loose slippers to prevent tripping or slipping.
Safety boots shall be used to protect the feet especially the toes against falling objects, splashing liquids like acid, etc.
Hard hats or helmets shall be provided to protect the head against falling objects.
Eye goggles shall be used to protect the eyes against light glare, splashing (dangerous) liquids, welding sparks and other hazards.
Hand gloves are useful protection for hands against hazards of chemicals and electrical shock. Gloves for electrical protection shall be of adequate voltage rating.
Ear protection (plug, muff etc) devices shall be used to mitigate the effect of excessive noise in work area.
Respirator (gas masks, etc) shall be used when one is working in contaminated air environment.
Safety belts is very useful for workers working at heights where exposure to fall is prominent. A safety belt shall be fastened with a line as short as possible and adequate tension. Safety belts shall always be in good condition.
While it is the responsibility of the employers to provide protective wares, it is the responsibility of each employee to use them correctly.
Supervisors and foremen owe a sacred duty to their subordinates by enforcing the correct usage of these items. They shall also lead by example, that is, ensuring that they wear correct clothing.

2.10Restriction from work Areas
Work areas shall be barricaded and restricted against little children and unauthorized persons.

3.1Site Clearance
This work shall be carried out with a dozer (D6), Wheel loader and Tippers.

Not Applicable

3.3Setting Out
This will be achieved by using profiles and wire or string lines. In the case of brickwork and other masonry the setting out line will normally be taken to the outer face of the walls and where steel or concrete columns are used the setting out line will be taken to the centre lines of the columns. In either case all the profiles shall be kept at the same level so as to keep the lines in the same plane and thereby assist in measuring all horizontal distances and the checking of the diagonals. All profiles shall be set well back from the actual works to allow access for vehicles and machines.
The required instrument shall include automatic level, thoedolite or total station. Accuracy in setting-out shall be within +/-5mm in 30 metres as any error greater than this shall warrant further check on setting-out.

3.4Structural Concrete Works
Concrete works are encountered at different stages of work such as the columns, beams, suspended slabs, staircases and lift shafts. Concrete shall be mixed on site at the batching area.

Concrete Production
Concrete production plant shall be positioned so as to give easy delivery to the parts of the work where the main concrete is required. Delivery lorries to the stockpiles of aggregates shall follow a designated route to avoid picking up mud and track it into the aggregate bays.

Water/cement ratio
The water/cement ratio of a concrete mix depends upon the strength specified which will normally be decided by the concrete mix design. The amount of water/cement paste will vary with the workability required and the use of any additive having lubricating effect.

Distribution and Placing
Transporting concrete shall be by the use of a pulley and skips for large loads, especially those required at high level while small amount shall be mixed by small batch mixers and transported using wheel barrows or headpans.
Placing of concrete shall be executed so that contamination, segregation or loss of constituent materials does not occur. The concrete shall be placed within 30 minutes of discharge from the mixer and the height from which concrete is poured shall not exceed 1.8m. Concrete shall therefore be discharged using a closed chute through a height in order to prevent segregation.

Concrete shall be properly vibrated to fill the corners of shuttering and to easily wrap around the reinforcing bars. Since mechanical vibrators of poker immersion type shall be used, care shall be taken not to prolong the vibration as to produce a watery mix on the surface. During vibration, vibrators shall be kept moving slowly in and out of the concrete and shall not be withdrawn quickly to avoid leaving an unfilled hole in the concrete. Suitable hand rammers shall also be provided as alternative should the vibrators break down in the middle of a pour.

It shall be agreed on site with the resident engineer where the construction joints should be placed. The positions shall be practicable and shall allow for the manner in which formwork must necessarily be erected. Consideration shall be given also to the “traditional” positions from a structural point of view.
The bonding of one layer of concrete to a previous layer shall be accomplished by cleaning the surface of the old concrete with a high pressure water jet, and placing at least 20mm thick of mortar on the exposed surface immediately before the new concrete is placed.

3.5Handling and fixing of steel reinforcement:
Reinforcement shall be cut and bent according to the bar bending schedules which in best engineering practice are issued by the resident engineer.
Crossings of reinforcement shall be wired together so that a rigid cage is built, able to withstand concrete placing without displacement. To ensure that the correct cover is given to bars, we shall prepare small spacer blocks of concrete of the requisite cover thickness and about 25mm square, which are wired on to the outside of reinforcement, keeping it the required distance from the formwork to give the specified cover.
All wire ties shall be snipped off close to the reinforcement so that their ends do not penetrate the concrete cover and form a path for corrosion of the reinforcement. Spacer bars, generally U-shaped shall be provided to keep reinforcement layers the correct distance apart in slabs and walls. If it is necessary to oil or grease the formwork to prevent it sticking to concrete, it shall be done before the formwork is erected to prevent the grease from getting onto the reinforcement which may reduce bonding.

Formwork shall be constructed of metal sheet, hardwood or plywood to give a satisfactory finish. If very smooth finishes are required, the plywood may be treated with epoxy-resin or any other material which will produce the required finish.
The formwork shall remain “true to line and level” despite substantial loading from the wet concrete. Column and wall faces shall be vertical, and beam soffits strictly level.
Adequate bracing and propping of the formwork shall be ensured to support the concrete load. The formwork used shall, in addition to supporting the live and dead loads involved, be adequately sealed at the joints to avoid loss of grout from the concrete. The striking or removal time of the formwork will vary with air temperature, humidity and consequent curing rate which shall be in accordance with the recommendations of BS 8110.

Considering the height and weights to be encountered in this type of job, it will be necessary to provide support to the formwork and a safe platform for workmen at such heights in the form of scaffolding. Prefabricated tubular units shall be used where necessary

Federal Government of Nigeria has released N72 billion for Lagos-Ibadan rail line

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The Federal Government of Nigeria has released N72 billion as its counterpart funding for the construction of the Lagos-Ibadan rail line.

The money released is what is required to access a loan from the Chinese government for the project to kick off.

The Minister of Transportation, Rotimi Amaechi, stated this on Monday during the Quarterly Business Forum which held at the Banquet hall of the Presidential villa Abuja.

He said the N72 billion is the full sum required as counterpart funding to avoid delaying the project.

“As for the construction of Lagos-Ibadan Railway, the Minister of Finance has been kind enough to release the counterpart funding in full,” he said.

He also said the nature of the release is the first in the history of Nigeria.

He said the Chinese authorities already approved the loan and therefore urged the National Assembly to urgently pass the $30 billion loan request sent by President Muhammadu Buhari.

“The only thing we need to do, I thank God there is somebody from the National Assembly here, is to plead with the National Assembly that the funds have been approved, then the National Assembly should please approve the $30bn loan.

“If you don’t encourage the National Assembly to make that approval, then, the economy won’t be making the kind of progress we want the economy to make.

“So, for me here, I will join to persuade the National Assembly to kindly make that approval because they are tied to projects,” Mr. Amaechi said.

(Premium Times)

Project Proposal Procedure

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To complete this section, please see instructions for the preparation of the Summary page:

Project title:       
Name of implementing agent(s):   
Project location:    
Proposed starting date:       
Project duration:
Amount requested from Organization:
Government inputs:           
Implementing agent inputs:
Other donor inputs:

The Project Proposal Application for Funding Form has five sections:

I. Background and justification of the project
II. Objectives of the project
III. Expected results of the project
IV. Project implementation and management
V. Project budget


This section should provide a brief introduction to the current social and economic situation related to the geographic region and beneficiaries of the project.  The background should also describe:

The problem or critical issue which the proposal seeks to resolve
How the proposal relates to other relevant national development strategies and policies
Whether there are other programmes and activities which will complement the proposal
How the need for the project was determined
How intended beneficiaries were involved in project identification and planning
What kind of assistance the concerned Governmental offices will provide
What kind of resources the Implementing Agency and other non-governmental organizations will provide.

If a non-governmental organization has prepared the proposal, it is important to describe how concerned Governmental officials were made aware of and/or were involved in project formulation.

Finally, the section should describe the relevant experience and capabilities of the project Implementing Agent, and the type and level of resources that the Implementing Agent will provide for project planning, implementation management and follow up.


A. Development objectives

This section should describe the way in project objectives are addressed in national development strategies and policies, in terms of specific programmes and how the proposed project will relate to these strategies and policies.

The discussion should indicate the specific national social and economic objectives to which the proposal, if successful, is expected to contribute, and how this is expected to contribute to improved well being and livelihood of the project beneficiaries and the larger community.

B.  Immediate objectives

This section should describe what the project is expected to achieve in terms of effects among intended beneficiaries. Specifically, the section discusses what changes are expected to occur among intended beneficiaries if project operations are successful.  Changes can include new and improved technical skills and knowledge, increased income-generating capacities, and greater public awareness at the community, national, regional or international levels.

The section should also discuss whether project operations will be extended to other locations, as well as whether the experience can be applied to other sectors.


A. Expected project results

This section should describe the overall results that the project is expected to accomplish and whether there may be unintended effects of the project, and how these possible challenges will be addressed.

The discussion should indicate in quantitative terms, to the extent possible, what the project will produce through its planned activities and budget.

B. Project activities and work plan

This section should describe how each immediate project objective will be carried out in terms of planned activities, their timing and duration, and who will be responsible for each activity. This can be summarized in a simple table.

C. Project Beneficiaries

This section describes who and how many people are expected to benefit from the project, both directly and indirectly.  It should also discuss how intended beneficiaries have been involved in project design, and their expected role in project implementation and evaluation.

D. Implementing agent management of project

This section should describe:

Who will be responsible for planning and management of project operations as well as the roles of other bodies and organizations associated with the project?
What arrangements will be established to ensure that there will be effective coordination with other relevant programmes and activities?

This section should also discuss whether project operations are expected to continue, or expand to other areas or sectors, once the current phase of assistance is completed.  This could include plans for introducing self-financing provisions to ensure continued viability of operations on project completion.


This section should discuss proposed mechanisms and procedures for monitoring of project operations to ensure that activities occur as planned, that they remain directed towards stated objectives, and that appropriate corrective action is taken if required.

Specifically, the discussion should indicate who will be responsible for preparing periodic project progress and final technical reports and for the accounting of expenditures, to be submitted to the Organization on Disability. All projects need to be evaluated on completion.  This section should also identify the party who will responsible for this task, as well as how intended beneficiaries will be involved.


The budget for the Organization should be prepared in U.S. dollars. An additional budget should be prepared to describe the budget components to be financed by Government, Project Implementing Agent and other parties participating in the project.

A description of the budget line items (with internal classification codes) are:

10.00 Project Personnel:

The resources of the Voluntary Fund can finance project personnel specialized needed to plan and carry out the project or specialized consultant services required to accomplish a specific project objective. Salaries and consultancy fees should be reflective of local prevailing conditions. The Organization does not prioritize projects with high personnel costs.

11.01    International Experts: for international personnel working for more than six months on the project.  Job description/Terms of reference should be included in project document.

11.50    Consultants: for personnel working for less than six months on the project. Job description/Terms of Reference should be included in project document.

13.00    Administrative Support: for clerical and related support tasks. Please note that financing of project support personnel is not a priority for the Organization.

15.00    Official Travel of Project Personnel.

17.00    National Professional Project Personnel. Job description/Terms of reference should be included in project document.
20.00 Subcontracts: 

This component pertains to specialized services provided the project by an outside contractor.  Each subcontract will require a separate budget line; subcontractor terms of reference should be attached as an annex to the project document.

30.00 Training:

32.00   Group training and study tours: organized training programmes and study tours conducted outside the country of the project; group training normally does not exceed two months and study tours normally are one month or less
33.00   In service training: cost of individual and group training organized and conducted in the country of the project.

40.00 Equipment:

41.00   Expendable equipment: items of equipment, supplies or training materials valued at less than N1,600,000.

42.00   Non-expendable equipment: items of equipment valued at N1,600,000 or more or which have a serviceable life of five years or more. NOTE: Normally, the resources of the Organization will only support acquisition of equipment needed for training or applied research. 

43.00   Premises: The Organization will not fund costs for premises (construction, rent, utilities). This line item should only be used to indicate any contributions from other donors, the Government, or the Implementing Agent.

50.00 Miscellaneous:

51.00    Operation, Maintenance and Repair of Equipment: operation and maintenance of project equipment that cannot be covered by the Host Government or the project Implementing Agent.

52.00    Publications and Report Costs: report costs, which may include the reproduction of a reasonable number of copies of project technical and final reports.

53.00    Sundry and Communications: official postage, communications and incidental supplies.

Construction: Steps of virtual project management

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There are numerous takes on what are the appropriate steps to project management. Instead of discussing these at length, it would be best to pick a general model and develop the permutations that those writing within the subject of virtual teams choose to emphasize. Gray & Larson support a traditional, linear model of collaboration involving 1) partner selection, 2) project manager team building, 3) stakeholder team building, 4) project implementation, and 5) project completion – celebrating success.
The first step listed is picking the right people. This is not really true since the project needs to be identified, promoted and approved by someone. This is generally not addressed since it is often not a distinguishing factor of virtual teams. Choosing personnel is the first step where traditional and virtual project management diverge.
One of the motivations of instituting a virtual team is that location is no longer a barrier to potential participant. However, one must consider the requirements of team membership and who makes the grade. Here much of the literature borrowers from previous writings on telecommuting. Schilling asserts there are a variety of criteria. First of all, participation must be voluntary--teams are destined to fail if not supported by its members. Furthermore, members must have previously demonstrated satisfactory work responsibilities and habits. Schilling further identifies a number of key social characteristics since work is often performed alone. The employee must be able to perform with limited supervision and feedback, reduced social interaction, have good organizational and time management skills, be self-motivated, demonstrate good performance, and be able to concentrate if away from a worksite. 
Putman, an author who also borrows heavily from telecommuting, believes that tasks involving “transmitting clearly defined pieces of information” are the best candidates for independent workers. However, this is typically not the situation in project management, which is oriented towards problem solving. Here she notes that collaborating workers developing new products require intense forms of communication that distinguish telecommuters from virtual team members.
It should be noted that the number of participants should be limited to a few. Lipnack & Stamps suggest five to ten (“Dispersed Teams are the Peopleware for the 21st Century”).  This is reasonable considering the network structure previously discussed. With each additional member added to the team, the number of links increases. Even with the best technology communication along those links are slow, making collaboration more difficult than face-to-face teams.
The next step in the Gray & Larson model is to develop the leader. Discussion on this topic is reserved for the section on “Leadership” because virtual teams impose unique demands on the project manager from start to finish.
The team needs to be developed and prepared for the task at hand. One method is the nine step Xerox model described by Fisher & Fisher. The first step is to form the team, but all the remaining steps are to prepare the members for their tasks. Steps two through nine are 2) communicate the vision, 3) develop a mission statement 4) define goals, 5) develop norms, 6) develop roles, 7) develop meeting processes, 8) develop communication processes, and 9) develop work processes.  The Xerox model is a sound model, but does not distinguish virtual teams from traditional ones in enumerating steps. This is not incorrect, but the implementation of the steps will require different practices and areas of emphasis for virtual teams.
Cantu identifies organizational design, job design, and team design as important early elements. Within organizational design, business goals are defined in the context members operate; members need to recognize the team values of others; the team needs to develop an infrastructure for involvement; and they need to design the configuration of the team while setting boundaries. Members need to be clearly aware of the team’s expectations of how each will participate. Therefore, up-front job design should consist of defining realistic job previews; designing accountability; giving decision making power to the team; discussing compensation; and providing feedback for employee development and recognition. Finally the team needs to be clearly defined as well. The team should have a clear identity, create a statement of purpose, name goals, and make connections with those outside the team who can provide resources and support. 
The fourth step, project implementation, proceeds like most other projects. The steps here are likely to be highly correlated with the subject of the project. For instance, if the project was to create a software package, appropriate development steps should be taken whether the team is virtual or traditional. However, virtual teams face additional challenges, describe in further detail in the section titled “Obstacles”, and require more effort to keep open the lines of communication and develop trust.
The final step in the Gray and Larson Model is project completion. Many sources suggest a form of celebration to mark the completion of the task and recognize the members of the team. For traditional teams this may mean going to dinner as a group. A virtual team may decide to do the same, but there are alternatives as well. A final video conference with corporate tokens of appreciation could be a substitute.
Some authors observe that there are other considerations upon completion of a project. Cantu labels this as re-entry. Members need to transition into new job roles or reallocate time that they previous dedicated to the project.  There is also the concern that their effort participating in the project be visible to those around them, particularly their supervisors. A good virtual team manager addresses these issues prior to kickoff.

Virtual Teams in an Organizational System

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Rather than just a mere curiosity, promoters of virtual teams assert there are many advantages to virtual teams. A few of the drivers leading to interest in virtual teams include attracting the best workers independent of location, no need to relocate existing workers, flexibility, reduction in travel time and expense, environments requiring inter-organizational cooperation, shift towards service work, global workdays (24 hours vs. 8), and changes in workers expectations. Although not the answer to all logistical problems encounter by projects, it does provide a potential solution to numerous personnel and work issues.
Whether from necessity or deliberate design, companies are relying on new communicative technology with an impact on organizational structure. Cooper, for instance, takes a loose view of Systems Thinking and uses it as a framework in which to place teamwork. Her emphasis is on change, and the changes relevant to contemporary organizations are reengineering, system integration, process redesign, Total Quality Management, and teamwork. These have been well promoted over the past decade and require a transition away from traditional approaches of management that emphasize the analysis of individual problems and incremental change. Systems thinking is constant change. Teamwork is unique because it overlaps all these radical transformations. It is key to the success of theses changes that each employee see their niche in the total environment. Network organizations are a popular subject because of their novelty and interplay with new telecommunication technologies. Therefore, it is not uncommon to read about virtual teams in the same context of virtual organizations. Obviously, by definition, any team of a virtual organizational is a virtual team. Typically, virtual organizations are discussed in terms of a network and the network model is imposed on the team structure as well. The appealing line of the network model is that it focuses on links and nodes. Since the links are the distinguishing factor that define virtual teams apart from traditional teams, examining links and nodes on a more microcosmic level may bring forth some enlightenment on the interaction between the individual members (nodes) and the types of links developed by successful virtual teams.
Sandhoff emphasizes real interactive structures in her analysis of organizations. She says, “From the perspective of those involved in it, a network presents itself as a loose, indirect and confusing structure of relations which is nevertheless able to influence social events.” This initial outlay yields the conclusion that successful network organizations are built on trustful relationships. It is the social network that reduces uncertainty and increases performance by providing a sense of predictability and allowing the exchange of resources.
Lipnack and Stamps also approach virtual teams through the portal of network systems. They predict 21st century organizations will be network organizations with virtual team components and each team networked with others. The key change will be the elimination of one-way paths within teams and organizations since teams function best through two-way communication structures (“Virtual Teams: The new way to work”).
However, imposing the network on virtual teams may be limiting since few companies actual subscribe to network structures over traditional structures. Therefore, Peterson and Stohr list seven basic types of virtual teams.
Networked teams consisting of individuals who collaborate to achieve a common goal; membership is diffuse and fluid
Parallel teams: work in short term to develop recommendations for an improvement in a process; has a distinct membership
Project Teams: conduct projects for users for a defined period; tasks are non-routine and results measurable; team has decision making authority
Production Teams: perform regular work, usually in one function; clearly defined membership
Service Teams: support customers in typical service support role around the clock
Management Teams: work collaboratively on a daily basis within a functional division
Action Teams: offer immediate responsiveness, activated in emergencies Although not disputed, most of the literature focuses on network teams or project teams either explicitly or implicitly. Research on the remaining areas is undeveloped or relevant characteristics gleaned from general works. The rest of this paper will focus exclusively on virtual project management teams.

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