Showing posts with label Construction Tips. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Construction Tips. Show all posts

Monday, January 9, 2017

Construction: Tolerances and Workmanship for Reinforced Masonry Construction

Tolerances and workmanship for the construction of reinforced masonry wall is important to provide required strength and aesthetics appearances to structures.

Construction technology has been evolved and developed over years however; masonry constructions that have been practiced for many years are still man made art.

To achieve required structural integrity and planed aesthetic appearances of reinforced masonry structures, different tolerances are established and therefore should be considered during construction.
Almost all reinforced masonry construction materials are produced to specific tolerances similarly; approximately entire masonry members are constructed and built to determined tolerances.

Since, masonry is an exposed construction materials, that is why more strict tolerances might be imposed on masonry structures compare with those limitations that are imposed on other structural systems which are ordinarily protected inside after the construction is finished.

All tolerances pertained to the installation of masonry members are specified in Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1-11) except for the tolerances which are determined in the contract document.

The purpose of providing placement and contraction tolerances by ACI 530.1-11, is to protect and safeguard the performance of the structure. However, the designated values in ACI 530.1-11 is more than enough for achieving normal aesthetic aspiration.

It is possible to impose more strict tolerances in the project records to manufacture an acceptable and more aesthetically appealing masonry structure.

It should be known that not only applying more rigid and tough construction tolerances could increase construction expenses but also make the work substantially difficult and considerably complicated.

In this article specified tolerances which are included in ACI 530.1-11 and are necessary for construction of reinforced masonry structure will be discussed.

Saturday, December 3, 2016

Construction: Sample of Memorandum of understanding

1.Parties.This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is made and entered

into by and between the --------------------------------------- , whose address is ----------------

-----------------------------, and the -----------------------------------------, whose address is ----

-----------------------------------------------------------

2.Purpose.The purpose of this MOU is to establish the terms and conditions

under which certified contract  ---------------------------------------- may,  provide law

enforcement assistance within the territorial jurisdiction of the --------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------.

3.Term of MOU.This MOU is effective upon the day and date last signed and rent the shop by the duly authorized representatives of the parties to this MOU and the parties’ respective locality or municipalities and shall remain in full force and effect for not longer than one (1) month beyond the current term of rentage.  This MOU may be terminated, without cause, by either party upon given --------------------------- written notice, which notice shall be delivered by hand or by certified mail to the address listed above.

4.Payment.As far as payment structure is concerned we have already discussed this at the time of meeting that i/we will charge you the sum of:

N----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.Responsibilities.   {Tenant} Mr/Mrs/Ms--------------------------------------------------

To pay the rent and maintain the shop and all the facility in it.

6.Responsibilities. {Lawyer or an Agent} Barrister/Mr/Mrs/Ms----------------

-------------------------------------------------------- to enforce the agreement into law.

7.General Provisions

A.Amendments.Either party may request changes to this MOU.  Any changes, modifications, revisions or amendments to this MOU which are mutually agreed upon by and between the parties to this MOU shall be incorporated by written instrument, and effective when executed and signed by all parties to this MOU.

B.Applicable Law.The rentage, interpretation and enforcement of this MOU shall be governed by the laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.  The courts of Nigeria shall have jurisdiction over any action arising out of this MOU and over the parties, and the venue shall be the --------------------------------------------.

8.Signatures.In witness whereof, the parties to this MOU through their duly authorized representatives have executed this MOU on the days and dates set out below, and certify that they have read, understood, and agreed to the terms and conditions of this MOU as set forth herein.

The effective date of this MOU is the date of the signature last affixed to this page.

[REQUESTING AGENCY/AGENT]

                                                                                                 
[Name and Title (Landlord/Owner of property/Agent)]Date

                                                                                                 
[Name and Title (Witness)]Date

[REQUESTING TENANT]

                                                                                                  
[Name and Title (Tenant)]Date

                                                                                                  
[Name and Title (Witness)]Date

Ojabeblog

Friday, December 2, 2016

SEE MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

It is gathered that current manual materials management practices and control procedures are unsatisfactory as they are labour intensive, inaccurate and
error prone.

The implication leads to waste and surplus of materials, delays, decrease in productivity and lack of up-to-date and real-time information.

Interestingly, many problems related to management surface amongst local contractors even in developing countries. The problems normally vary in nature and
intensity but are usually related to the inefficient
management of construction resources including materials,
labour, plant and subcontractors.

Few main materials management problems were being
identified in the construction industry in the UK and are
summarised as below:
(1) Lack of site storage space.

(2) Problems with tower crane distribution.

(3) Problems on logistic of materials

(4) Small loading area

 (5) Problem with one site access point

(6) Difficulty in delivery of materials on site during aircraft operation Operation limitation due to security considerations Inadequate loading area at consolidation centre.

Problems with congestion time at loading area A survey in the construction productivity in Iran reveals the major causes of the lack in productivity boils down to the improper deposited material, improper material handling, improper material application and improper material deliveries.
Due to the fact that the problems in materials management will be never ending, it is plausible that ICT implementation may be the answer to overcome the challenge of materials management in the construction industry. The dilemmas faced in materials management can be overcome by adapting ICT-enabled solution that can help support the effective management of materials activities.

Ojabeblog

SEE MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

It is gathered that current manual materials management practices and control procedures are unsatisfactory as they are labour intensive, inaccurate and
error prone.

The implication leads to waste and surplus of materials, delays, decrease in productivity and lack of up-to-date and real-time information.

Interestingly, many problems related to management surface amongst local contractors even in developing countries. The problems normally vary in nature and
intensity but are usually related to the inefficient
management of construction resources including materials,
labour, plant and subcontractors.

Few main materials management problems were being
identified in the construction industry in the UK and are
summarised as below:
(1) Lack of site storage space.

(2) Problems with tower crane distribution.

(3) Problems on logistic of materials

(4) Small loading area

 (5) Problem with one site access point

(6) Difficulty in delivery of materials on site during aircraft operation Operation limitation due to security considerations Inadequate loading area at consolidation centre.

Problems with congestion time at loading area A survey in the construction productivity in Iran reveals the major causes of the lack in productivity boils down to the improper deposited material, improper material handling, improper material application and improper material deliveries.
Due to the fact that the problems in materials management will be never ending, it is plausible that ICT implementation may be the answer to overcome the challenge of materials management in the construction industry. The dilemmas faced in materials management can be overcome by adapting ICT-enabled solution that can help support the effective management of materials activities.

Ojabeblog

Monday, November 28, 2016

QUANTITY SURVEYOR’S PROJECT VALUATION AND FINAL ACCOUNTS

Valuation is the process of determining the current worth of work done on site. The total value of new construction or rehabilitation of work, is the basis for payment of the construction permit fee.
Valuation of a building depends on the type of the building, its structure and durability, on the situation, size, shape, frontage, width of roadways, the quality of materials used in the construction and present day prices of materials. Valuation also depends on the height of the building, height of the plinth, thickness of the wall, nature of the floor, roof, doors, windows etc.
The valuation of a building is determined on working out its cost of construction at present day rate and allowing a suitable depreciation.

Six Methods of Valuation
Rental Method of Valuation
Direct Comparisons of the capital value
Valuation based on the profit
Valuation based on the cost
Development method of Valuation
Depreciation method of Valuation
Rental Method of Valuation
In this method, the net income by way of rent is found out by deducting all outgoing from the gross rent. A suitable rate of interest as prevailing in the market is assumed and Year’s purchase is calculated. This net income multiplied by Year’s Purchase gives the capitalized value or valuation of the property. This method is applicable only when the rent is known or probable rent is determined by enquiries.

Direct comparison with the capital Value:
This method may be adopted when the rental value is not available from the property concerned, but there are evidences of sale price of properties as a whole. In such cases, the capitalized value of the property is fixed by direct comparison with capitalized value of similar property in the locality.

Valuation based on profit:
This method of Valuation is suitable for buildings like hotels, cinemas, theatres etc for which the capitalized value depends on the profit. In such cases, the net income is worked out after deducting gross income; all possible working expense, outgoings, interest on the capital invested etc. The net profit is multiplied by Year’s Purchase to get the capitalized value. In such cases, the valuation may work out to be high in comparison with the cost of construction.

Valuation based on cost:
In this method, the actual cost incurred in constructing the building or in possessing the property is taken as basis to determine the value of property. In such cases, necessary depreciation should be allowed and the points of obsolescence should also be considered.

Development Method of Valuation:
This method of Valuation is used for the properties which are in the underdeveloped stage or partly developed and partly underdeveloped stage. If a large place of land is required to be divided into plots after providing for roads, parks etc, this method of valuation is to be adopted. In such cases, the probable selling price of the divided plots, the area required for roads, parks etc and other expenditures for development should be known.
If a building is required to be renovated by making additional changes, alterations or improvements, the development method of Valuation may be used.

Depreciation Method of Valuation:
According to this method of Valuation, the building should be divided into four parts:
Walls
Roofs
Floors
Doors and Windows
And the cost of each part should first be worked out on the present day rates by detailed measurements.
The present value of land and water supply, electric and sanitary fittings etc should be added to the valuation of the building to arrive at total valuation of the property.
Quantity Surveyors can provide an accurate and detailed valuations/applications for payment solution for contractors and sub-contractors in order to value the works completed on-site and to ensure that the work completed is paid for.
The Valuations service which we provide to main contractors and sub-contractors includes:
Applications for Payment
Preparation & submission of monthly interim valuations/progress applications for payment and following up in order to agree payments.
Valuing and agreeing contract variations in accordance with the terms of the contract.
Re-measuring completed work on-site.  
Preparing Valuations.
Quantity Surveyors are able to carry out monthly valuations of work-in-progress in order to make stage payments to the contractor. This includes the physical measurement of the work on the site and materials delivered. The valuation for interim certificates should be made as accurately as is reasonably possible, and the contractor is entitled under the terms of the contract to the full value of work executed on site, less a specified retention sum.
One of the main functions of the contractor's quantity surveyor is to ensure timely and full payment for work carried out on site. For most contractors interim valuations and certificates form their only source of income, from which they fund the whole of their building operation. In general, building contracts provide within their conditions regular and timely payments to the contractor.
Interim Valuations is the bill that includes cost spent on works, which are completed and in progress in a construction. This is prepared by the contractor’s Quantity Surveyor and check by the consultancy Quantity Surveyor. The purpose of this, is to obtain money required for carrying out the work. Interim Valuation are prepared by the Quantity Surveyor whenever the architect considers them to be necessary for the purpose of ascertaining the amount to be stated as due in an interim certificate. The architect is contractually bound to issue interim certificates at the period stated within the conditions of contract. Interim certificates is a payment certificate issued under the clause “Contract Price and Payment”, other than the final payment certificate (FIDIC Conditions of Contract Definition)
Most standard forms of contract state an entitlement on the part of the contractor to interim payment. These payment assist in the contractor’s cash flow, but the actual determination of the contractor’s entitlement is not made until the final certificate. The interim payments are therefore sums paid on account of whatever the contractor might eventually be entitled to recover from the employer. Most standard forms make issue of a certificate a condition precedent to the contractor’s right to payment.
It is a matter of fact whether payment for work carried out is a statement of acceptance or approval. Most contract provisions for interim certification and payment are based on cumulative valuation of work done, and are only for payment on account. They are not binding nor conclusive of acceptance of the work.
We will assess the value of any variations and extras and these costs will be included in interim applications for payment. The valuation of variations involves the omission of work originally included in the bill of quantities and the addition of work as executed in its place. Each variation is considered separately and their net values carried forward to a general summary. Nominated subcontractors and suppliers accounts are also included in interim valuations as and when the work has been executed on-site or materials supplied.
The elements to be included within an interim certificate can therefore be summarized as:
preliminaries
measured works
valuation of architect's instructions or variations
remeasurement of provisional items, prime cost (PC) sums and provisional quantities
valuation of nominated subcontractors and suppliers
unfixed materials on site and, where allowable, materials off-site
fluctuations, where they are allowed within the contract provisions
Despite the obligations on the architect and the quantity surveyor to produce both interim certificates and valuations, interim valuations are generally carried out together, i.e. between quantity surveyors, so that agreement can be reached between parties before certification.

FINAL ACCOUNTS
Contractor Final Account
Quantity Surveyors offer to undertake all works entailed to settle the final account. We are involved in the final account preparation, submission & subsequent agreement on behalf of both main contractors and sub-contractors. Quantity Surveyor’s Final Accounts services which we provide to both main contractors and sub-contractors ensures the following:-
All work executed by the contractor including variations, provisional sums and quantities, dayworks etc are accurately assessed and included
Claims for loss/expense and fluctuations included
Accurate final payment is received at the appropriate time for all work executed on site including the above items
Confirmation of the employers agreement to final account figure is obtained in writing
Architect issues final certificate for final payment to main contractor
Consultant Final Account
Quantity Surveyors can deal with the final account preparation, submission & subsequent agreement on behalf of consultants such as architects including both private and public sector clients. Our Final Accounts services which we provide to consultants and clients ensures the following:-
Clear statement showing the contract sum followed by all necessary adjustments to that sum
Prepared in accordance with the terms and conditions of the relevant contract eg. JCT standard building contract
All items fully assessed and adjustments made for variations, provisional sums, re-measured works etc
Work carried out on a dayworks basis is included
Loss and expense claims / reimbursement accurately assessed and included
Fluctuations where applicable are included
Confirmation of the contractor's agreement to final account figure is obtained in writing
Architect issues final certificate for final payment to main contractor
Final Account Preparation Procedure
Quantity Surveyors prepare the final account in the manner that is best suited for the particular project with the original contract sum as the starting point. An important part of the contractor's quantity surveyor's work is the agreement of the final account. Under the terms of the contract the private quantity surveyor is responsible for its preparation, but in reality the best approach is for both the client's quantity surveyor and the contractor's quantity surveyor to work together to produce an agreed account.
A Final Account in construction contracts is the agreed statement of the amount of money to be paid at the end of a building contract by the employer to the contractor. A final account brings about a sense of finality to the negotiations leading up to the agreement of the Final Account between the parties to the contract.
Quantity Surveyors ensures that in accordance with common practices both the Employer (or the Employer’s representative) and the Contractor signs the Final Account Statement to signify that the Final Account figure represents the full and final settlement of all claims etc. The settlement of the final account negotiations between the contractor, and the architect or quantity surveyor will in due course trigger the issue of the final account statement and ultimately, enable the architect to issue the final certificate.
Under the terms and conditions of the contract the contractor is to provide the architect or quantity surveyor with all documents necessary for the final account preparation not later than 6 months after practical completion. Within 3 months of receipt of these documents the architect or quantity surveyor is to prepare and ascertain the final account sum and send this to the contractor.
The bulk of the final account will generally consist of measured work priced at the original billed rates. If the contractor's quantity surveyor has reason to doubt the accuracy of any of the original billed items, he can make a request to the quantity surveyor for work concerned to be measured on-site. 
The adjustment of the contract sum in the final account normally falls under several relevant items, although the quantity surveyor must have regard to all the matters listed in the standard form of contract and conditions. The contract conditions tabulates all the matters that shall be dealt with in the final account in order to adjust the contract sum in accordance with the conditions.
Sums to be deducted:
Prime cost sums and amounts in respect of named subcontractors and associated contractor's profit;
Provisional sums and the value of work for which approximate quantities are included in contract bills;
Variations that are omissions;
Amounts allowable to the employer under the fluctuations clauses;
Any other amount that is required by the contract to be deducted from the contract sum.
Sums to be added:
The total amounts of nominated subcontracts finally adjusted in accordance with the relevant subcontract conditions;
Where the contractor has tendered for work that was to have been preformed by a nominated subcontractor and his tender has been accepted, the amount of the tender suitably adjusted;
Any amounts due to nominated suppliers, including cash discounts of 5 per cent, but excluding VAT;
The contractor's profit on the above amounts 1,2 & 3;
Any amounts payable by the employer relating to statutory fees and charges, opening up and testing, royalties and patent rights, and insurances;
The value of work carried out against provisional sums or approximate quantities included in the contract bills;
Any amounts payable by the employer to the contractor by way of reimbursement for direct loss/and or expense arising from matters materially affecting the regular progress of the works;
Any amount expended by the contractor as a result of loss or damage by fire or other perils where the risks are insured by the employer and the contractor is entitled to reimbursement;
Any amount payable to the contractor under the fluctuations clauses;
Any other amount that is required by the contract to be added to the contract sum.
All relevant items must be shown separately in the final account, and the net amount of each variation and amounts due to each nominated subcontractor and nominated supplier listed. When preparing the final account the quantity surveyor should give the contractor's quantity surveyor the opportunity to be present when measurements and details are taken or recorded, so that the document is prepared in full liaison with the contractor.
Delays in the settlement of the final account represent additional cost to the contractor and in the majority of cases the employer is anxious to know his ultimate financial commitment. The architect and the quantity surveyor have a contractual responsibility under the contract to keep to the date stipulated in the contract for completion of the final account and the contractor should produce every assistance in the prompt provision of subcontractors and supplier’s accounts, agreement of measurement and prices, and the supply of all necessary supporting data.

QUESTIONS:
(1) What is valuation of a Building?

(2) Among the construction team, who prepare Interim Valuation?

(3) Who issue interim certificates for the payment made to contractor?

(4) Differentiate between Interim Valuation and Interim Certificate?

ANSWERS:
(1) Valuation is the process of determining the current worth of work done on site. The total value of new construction or rehabilitation of work, is the basis for payment of the construction permit fee.
Valuation of a building depends on the type of the building, its structure and durability, on the situation, size, shape, frontage, width of roadways, the quality of materials used in the construction and present day prices of materials. Valuation also depends on the height of the building, height of the plinth, thickness of the wall, nature of the floor, roof, doors, windows etc.
The valuation of a building is determined on working out its cost of construction at present day rate and allowing a suitable depreciation.

(2) Interim Valuations are prepared by the Quantity Surveyor whenever the architect considers them to be necessary for the purpose of ascertaining the amount to be stated as due in an interim certificate.

(3) The architect is contractually bound to issue interim certificates at the period stated within the conditions of contract.

(4) Interim Valuations is the bill that includes cost spent on works, which are completed and in progress in a construction. The purpose of this, is to obtain money required for carrying out the work. This is prepared by the contractor’s Quantity Surveyor and check by the consultancy Quantity Surveyor.
Interim certificates are payment certificate issued under the clause “Contract Price and Payment”, other than the final payment certificate. The architect is contractually bound to issue interim certificates at the period stated within the conditions of contract.

Ojabeblog

Sunday, November 27, 2016

Construction: Types of construction contract

Types of Construction Contract Documents

At early stages for any construction project, owner with his engineer or consultant prepares necessary documents for tender process which will be included in the contract. These documents are called contract documents.

Following are the types of documents in a construction contract:

    (1) General conditions
    (2) Special conditions
    (3) Drawings and specifications
    (4) B.O.Q (bill of quantity)
    (5) Letter of acceptance
    (6) Contractor bid

Conditions of Construction Contract

Conditions of contract are terms which rule the relationships between the owner and the contractor, define each party’s rights and obligations, specify method of payment and determine actions required when existing any disputes between the owner and the contractor.

Following are the conditions of contract for construction projects:

    General conditions of contract
    Special conditions of contract

General conditions of contract

They are standard terms that suit the majority of projects, they include:

    Definition of the project
    Contract components
    Rights and responsibilities for the owner and the contractor
    Project schedule
    Payment method
    Warranty and delay penalty

Special conditions of contract

They are the modifications required to suit the uniqueness of the project, make the contract flexible for the nature of the project and achieve project objectives.
Selection of Type of Construction Contracts

One of the characteristics of construction projects is uniqueness. Every project has its special circumstances, so it’s important to select the contract type which suits the project. The process of selecting the type of contract is developed by the owner.

Factors which affect the selection of construction contract are:

1. Project objectives

The type of contract should meet with project objectives.

2. Project constraints

There isn’t any construction project without constraints. Thus, project constraints should be considered while selecting type of construction contracts.

3. Project delivery method

Project delivery method determines the relationships between parties getting involved in the project and how they interact with each other from project initiation to project closure.
Types of Construction Contracts

There are many types of contracts used in construction. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages with respect to the owner and the contractor. They are categorized in two major groups as per method of payment to the contractor.

Following are the types of construction contracts generally used in construction projects:

  (1)  Lump sum contract
  (2)  Unit price contract
  (3)  Cost plus contract
  (4) Target cost contract

Price-based Construction Contracts.

1. Lump Sum Construction Contract

In this type the contractor bids a single fixed price for overall activities in the project scope. The contractor is responsible for estimating project costs from drawings then adds overhead and his profit to determine the price of the project.

All risks are assigned to the contractor, there isn’t any risk carried by the owner. The contractor has incentive in this contract as he is rewarded for early finish and there is penalty for late finish.

This contract is ideal when the project scope is well defined at the design stage because there is limited flexibility for modifying the design during construction period.

2. Unit Price Construction Contract

The total price of the project in unit price contract is based on the price of each item’s unit. The contractor is paid as per the rates of items specified in the bill of quantity.

The risk is shared with the contractor and the owner. This type of contract has more flexibility for design changing than the lump sum contract.

The construction of the project can be started before finishing the designs so the total cost of the project will be uncertain at the early stages of the project.
Cost-based Construction Contracts

3. Cost Plus Construction Contract

The contractor is paid based on the actual cost of the project including direct and indirect costs plus specific fee. This fee could be a fixed fee or percentage of costs.

All risks are assigned to the owner and he gets involved with the contractor in the management of the project. The contractor has no risk in case of increasing the cost of the project, also there isn’t any incentive for early finish.

This type of contract is ideal when the project scope is uncertain in the early stages of the project. The contractor can start the execution of the project before finishing the design. It is impossible to estimate the cost of the project before the construction has been finished.

4. Target Cost Construction Contract

Target cost contract has mutual features of the lump sum and cost plus contracts. The contractor is paid based on the actual costs plus a certain fee either fixed or percentage of total cost in case of the cost of the project doesn’t exceed certain target cost specified by the owner.

There is risk carried by the contractor in case of increase in cost of construction project. The contractor is also rewarded a percentage of any savings between target and actual cost.

Ojabeblog

Sample of memorandum of understanding

1.Parties.This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is made and entered

into by and between the --------------------------------------- , whose address is ----------------

-----------------------------, and the -----------------------------------------, whose address is ----

-----------------------------------------------------------

2.Purpose.The purpose of this MOU is to establish the terms and conditions

under which certified contract  ---------------------------------------- may,  provide law

enforcement assistance within the territorial jurisdiction of the --------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------.

3.Term of MOU.This MOU is effective upon the day and date last signed and rent the shop by the duly authorized representatives of the parties to this MOU and the parties’ respective locality or municipalities and shall remain in full force and effect for not longer than one (1) month beyond the current term of rentage.  This MOU may be terminated, without cause, by either party upon given --------------------------- written notice, which notice shall be delivered by hand or by certified mail to the address listed above.

4.Payment. As far as payment structure is concerned we have already discussed this at the time of meeting that i/we will charge you the sum of:

N----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.Responsibilities.   {Tenant} Mr/Mrs/Ms--------------------------------------------------

To pay the rent and maintain the shop and all the facility in it.

6.Responsibilities. {Lawyer or an Agent} Barrister/Mr/Mrs/Ms----------------

-------------------------------------------------------- to enforce the agreement into law.

7.General Provisions

A.Amendments.Either party may request changes to this MOU.  Any changes, modifications, revisions or amendments to this MOU which are mutually agreed upon by and between the parties to this MOU shall be incorporated by written instrument, and effective when executed and signed by all parties to this MOU.

B.Applicable Law.The rentage, interpretation and enforcement of this MOU shall be governed by the laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.  The courts of Nigeria shall have jurisdiction over any action arising out of this MOU and over the parties, and the venue shall be the --------------------------------------------.

8.Signatures. In witness whereof, the parties to this MOU through their duly authorized representatives have executed this MOU on the days and dates set out below, and certify that they have read, understood, and agreed to the terms and conditions of this MOU as set forth herein.

The effective date of this MOU is the date of the signature last affixed to this page.

[REQUESTING AGENCY/AGENT]

                                                                                                 
[Name and Title (Landlord/Owner of property/Agent)]Date

                                                                                                 
[Name and Title (Witness)]Date

[REQUESTING TENANT]

                                                                                                  
[Name and Title (Tenant)]Date

                                                                                                  
[Name and Title (Witness)]Date

Ojabeblog

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Virtual team in an organization system

Rather than just a mere curiosity, promoters of virtual teams assert there are many advantages to virtual teams. A few of the drivers leading to interest in virtual teams include attracting the best workers independent of location, no need to relocate existing workers, flexibility, reduction in travel time and expense, environments requiring inter-organizational cooperation, shift towards service work, global workdays (24 hours vs. 8), and changes in workers expectations. Although not the answer to all logistical problems encounter by projects, it does provide a potential solution to numerous personnel and work issues. 
Whether from necessity or deliberate design, companies are relying on new communicative technology with an impact on organizational structure. Cooper, for instance, takes a loose view of Systems Thinking and uses it as a framework in which to place teamwork. Her emphasis is on change, and the changes relevant to contemporary organizations are reengineering, system integration, process redesign, Total Quality Management, and teamwork. These have been well promoted over the past decade and require a transition away from traditional approaches of management that emphasize the analysis of individual problems and incremental change. Systems thinking is constant change. Teamwork is unique because it overlaps all these radical transformations. It is key to the success of theses changes that each employee see their niche in the total environment. Network organizations are a popular subject because of their novelty and interplay with new telecommunication technologies. Therefore, it is not uncommon to read about virtual teams in the same context of virtual organizations. Obviously, by definition, any team of a virtual organizational is a virtual team. Typically, virtual organizations are discussed in terms of a network and the network model is imposed on the team structure as well. The appealing line of the network model is that it focuses on links and nodes. Since the links are the distinguishing factor that define virtual teams apart from traditional teams, examining links and nodes on a more microcosmic level may bring forth some enlightenment on the interaction between the individual members (nodes) and the types of links developed by successful virtual teams. 
Sandhoff emphasizes real interactive structures in her analysis of organizations. She says, “From the perspective of those involved in it, a network presents itself as a loose, indirect and confusing structure of relations which is nevertheless able to influence social events.” This initial outlay yields the conclusion that successful network organizations are built on trustful relationships. It is the social network that reduces uncertainty and increases performance by providing a sense of predictability and allowing the exchange of resources. 
Lipnack and Stamps also approach virtual teams through the portal of network systems. They predict 21st century organizations will be network organizations with virtual team components and each team networked with others. The key change will be the elimination of one-way paths within teams and organizations since teams function best through two-way communication structures (“Virtual Teams: The new way to work”). 
However, imposing the network on virtual teams may be limiting since few companies actual subscribe to network structures over traditional structures. Therefore, Peterson and Stohr list seven basic types of virtual teams. 
Networked teams consisting of individuals who collaborate to achieve a common goal; membership is diffuse and fluid 
Parallel teams: work in short term to develop recommendations for an improvement in a process; has a distinct membership 
Project Teams: conduct projects for users for a defined period; tasks are non-routine and results measurable; team has decision making authority 
Production Teams: perform regular work, usually in one function; clearly defined membership 
Service Teams: support customers in typical service support role around the clock 
Management Teams: work collaboratively on a daily basis within a functional division 
Action Teams: offer immediate responsiveness, activated in emergencies Although not disputed, most of the literature focuses on network teams or project teams either explicitly or implicitly. Research on the remaining areas is undeveloped or relevant characteristics gleaned from general works. The rest of this paper will focus exclusively on virtual project management teams.

ojabeblog

Vacancy: Director General/Chief Executive Officer needed by Ministry of Mineral Development

The Ministry of Solid Minerals Development is an agency set up to unlock the economic potentials of the solid minerals sub-sector in Nigeria...